Indonesia: 1945-1949 (THE REVOLUTION)

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From Agreement to Agreement of Indonesia post independence

By Kathleen
LINGGARJATI AGREEMENT

The Linggadjati Agreement, also known as the Cheribon Agreement, was a political accord concluded on 15 November 1946 by the Dutch administration and the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia. Negotiations took place 11–12 November. The Dutch side was represented by Lieutenant General Governor Hubertus van Mook, the Indonesian side by Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir.

Negotiations had begun in October 1946 and a ceasefire in Java and Sumatra was agreed to. Recognising their still weakened position following World War II, the Netherlands were more prepared to negotiate with the Republic than they were later in the Indonesian National Revolution. In the terms of the agreement, the Netherlands agreed to recognize Republican rule over Java, Sumatra and Madura. The Republic would become a constituent state of the United States of Indonesia, which should be established by 1 January 1949 at the latest and form a Netherlands-Indonesian Union together with the Netherlands, Suriname, and the Netherlands Antilles. The Dutch Queen would remain official head of this Union.

However, on 25 March 1947 the House of Representatives ratified a ‘stripped down’ version of the treaty, which was not accepted by the Indonesians. Further disagreements rose over the implementation of the agreement. On 20 July of the same year, the Dutch administration canceled the accord, followed by military intervention in form of Operatie Product, the first of two events known as politionele acties (‘police actions’).

Result:

-The Dutch recognized the sovereignty of Indonesia over Sumatra, Java and Madura.
– Netherlands and Indonesia will work together to form United States of Indonesia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linggadjati_Agreement

RENVILLE AGREEMENT

The Renville Agreement was a United Nations Security Council brokered political accord between the Netherlands who were seeking to re-establish their colony in South East Asia, and Indonesian Republicans seeking to secure Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Ratified on January 17, 1948, the agreement was an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the disputes that arose following the 1946 Linggadjati Agreement. It recognised a cease-fire along the so-called ‘van Mook line, an artificial line which connected up the most advanced Dutch positions. The agreement is named after USS Renville, the ship on which the negotiations were held while anchored in Jakarta Bay.

On 1 August 1947 an Australian resolution in the United Nations Security Council calling for a ceasefire between the Dutch and Indonesian Republican forces was passed. Dutch Lt. Governor-General Van Mook gave the ceasefire order on 5 August. On 25 August, the Security Council passed a resolution proposed by the United States that the Security Council tender its good offices to help resolve the Dutch-Indonesian dispute peacefully. This assistance would take the form of a Committee of Good Offices (CGO) made up of three representatives, one appointed by the Netherlands, one by Indonesia and a third, mutually agreed by both sides. The Dutch chose a representative from Belgium, Indonesia chose one from Australia and both agreed on the US for the third member. A few days later, on 29 August 1947 the Dutch proclaimed the Van Mook Line, claiming it marked the extent the areas they held as of the ceasefire. However the Dutch included areas of Indonesia the Dutch had not reentered. The republic was left with about a third of Java and most of the island of Sumatra, but the republican forces were cut off from the main food growing regions. A Dutch blockade then stopped arms, food and clothing reaching the republicans. The Dutch side said would accept these proposals if Indonesians accepted them and its original 12 proposals by the 12 January deadline. After a 48-hour extension to the deadline and discussions to clarify the Dutch proposals, Dr Frank Graham, the US member of the CGO convinced the republicans to accept, saying they could rely on the US using its influence to ensure the Dutch kept to their side of the bargain. The Indonesian side also felt that referendums in the regions would result in victory for the pro-republicans and that they would be able to dominate the federal government. Graham also told Amir Sjarifuddin that the US would provide aid to help rebuild a free Indonesia.

Result: Indonesia recognizes the areas occupied by the Dutch in the Netherlands into the country’s first aggression

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renville_Agreement

ROEM ROYEN AGREEMENT

Although he has to negotiate with Indonesia, the Netherlands continues to siege and blockade.
The Netherlands also continue to establish the state – the puppet state, eg state Pasundan (February 20, 1948) and the state of East Java (16 November 1948). Furthermore, the Dutch government proposed in shape while ad interim. Therefore the government of the Republic of Indonesia does not provide answers, Dr. Van MOOK Beel as a substitute for longer feel bound by the Renville Agreement II Military Aggression and launched on 1948.
Finally, the Indonesia – Netherlands approached as a continuation of the Renville Agreement. After repeatedly held talks under the auspices of KTN, Indonesia and the Netherlands re-entered negotiations. Indonesia was represented by Mr. Muh. Roem and the Netherlands was represented by Dr. Van Royen.
Manuscript talks was signed on 7 May 1949. Substance is that both parties agree and will attend the Round Table Conference to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, on August 23 to November 2, 1949.

Result:

-The Indonesian government will be returned to Yogyakarta.
– Indonesia and the Netherlands will soon hold negotiations Round Table Conference (RTC).

http://muhpuy234.blogspot.com/2009/02/perjanjian-roem-royen.html

ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE

The Round Table Conference was held in the Hague from August 23 – November 2, 1949 between representatives of the Netherlands, the Republic of Indonesia and the BFO (Federal Consultative Assembly) representing various states the Dutch had created in the Indonesian archipelago. Prior to this conference, three other high level meetings between Netherlands and Indonesia took place; the Linggadjati Agreement (1947), the Renville Agreement (1948), and the Roem-van Roijen Agreement (1949). The conference ended with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia.

Result:

-Netherlands recognizes Indonesian sovereignty States.
– West Irian will be completed a year after the recognition of sovereignty

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch%E2%80%93Indonesian_Round_Table_Conference

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Diplomacy ways of Indonesia (1945-1949)

LINGGARJATI AGREEMENT

By Irena

Linggarjati was the first agreement happening before Renville Agreement, Roem Royen Agreement, and Round Table Conference Agreement. Linggarjati is another agreement between Indonesian people and Dutch people in Liggarjati, West Java that discuss another part of Indonesian Independence. This agreement was signed in Istana Merdeka Jakarta in 15th of November 1946 which has been ratified from both countries in 25th of March 1947.
This agreement was lead by Sutan Sjahrir which was the Prime Minister and other three members which are Mohammad Roem, Susanto Tirtoprodjo, and AK Gani. Sjahrir Cabinet III was the name of the cabinet. Lord Killearn was the mediator and he’s from England. In the Dutch sides was lead by the team called General Commission which was lead by Schermenhorn with Max Van Poll, F de Boer, and HJ Van Mook as the members.
The result of the agreement was that there was 17 article that was talking about that Dutch admit Republic Indonesia’s area which are Java, Sumatera and Madura. Second thing is that Dutch people need to leave Republic Indonesia area at least 1 January 1949. Both countries agreed to make a country of Indonesian Republic Union and also many more things written in the article. Sadly the Dutch people was not a country that can be trusted, in 20th of July 1947, General Governor H.J. Van Mook said that Dutch isn’t bound with the agreement. This leads the anger of Indonesian people and Dutch Military Aggression I happen in 21st of July 1947.
http://id.wikisource.org/wiki/Perjanjian_Linggarjati
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perundingan_Linggarjati

RENVILLE AGREEMENT
Renville agreement is an agreement between Indonesia and Dutch that was signed on 17th of January 1948 on United States of America’s war ship deck. The negotiation was started in 8th December 1947 and mediated by KTN ( Komisi Tiga Negara) and Committee of Good Offices for Indonesia that stands from USA, Australia, and Belgium.
Indonesian delegation is lead by Amir Syrifuddin Harahap Prime Minister. From Dutch was lead by KNIL R. Abdul Kadir Wijoyoatmojo Colonel. This agreement ends with a agreement which that Dutch only admit Central Java, Yogyakarta, and Sumatra as area of Indonesian, they also agreed on the demarcation line that separates Indonesian area and area that Dutch colonize, last the agreement was that TNI or Indonesian Military need to be withdrawn from the area they guard on in Wes Java and East Java to Indonesian area in Yogyakarta.
The agreement doesn’t have a good impact for Republic Indonesia’s Government which were that the area of Republic Indonesia becoming even smaller and surrounded by Dutch area colonization, second thing was that there was a hard reaction in Republic Indonesia’s ruler that damage the falling cabinet of Amir Syarifuddin because it is considered as selling own country to Dutch. The Indonesian economy was blockade by Dutch, Indonesian have to take one by one of the military from guerilla area to then move to Republic Indonesia area that is close and at last for the effort of separating Republic Indonesia country, Dutch build doll countries like West Borneo country, Madura country, East Sumatera country, and East Java country. Those doll countries are united in BFO or Bijeenkomstvoor Federal Overslag.
http://sejarahkita.comoj.com/jenny103.html
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perjanjian_Renville

ROEM ROYEN
Roem Royen is an agreement within Indonesia and Dutch which was started on the 14th of April 1949. Roem Royen Agreement is also called Roem-Van-Royen Agreement. After started in 14th April, the agreement was signed on 7 May 1959 in Des Indes Hotel, Batavia. This agreement is to fix several problems about Indonesian’s independence before the Round Table Conference. The name Roem Royen was from the names of the people who are leading the agreement which are Mohammad Roem from Indonesia and J.H van Roijen from the Dutch.
The result of the agreement was that the people of Indonesian that has weapons will stop every guerrilla activities. The governments of Indonesian Republic will be returned to Yogyakarta and will be coming to the Round Table Conference and the Dutch promise that people with weapons will all stop the military movements and let free the people who were kept as prisoner. The Dutch people kept their promises. In 22th of June another meeting was held and the result was that the sovereignty will be given to Indonesia fully; the Dutch and the Indonesian people will build an alliance. The Netherland Indies will give all rights, powers, and also duty to Indonesia. After those promises, in 6th of July Soekarno which was Indonesian’s president and Hatta which was Indonesian’s Prime Minister come back from the isolation to the capital city that time which was Yogyakarta. Although this agreement was already happen, there’s a strong reaction from TNI or Indonesian’s military and PDRI was that the commandant of the armed Republic Indonesia Lieutenant Sudirman sent lessons that are pointed to the commandants of the unity reminding that they are not included in making the agreement, because the impacts will give disadvantages to the defense and the struggle. The agreement about indendence was done but not about the Papua in the West side.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perjanjian_Roem_Royen
http://indonesiakemarin.blogspot.com/2009/05/perjanjian-roem-royen-7-mei-1949.html
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE

Round Table conference or mostly called Konferensi Meja Bundar in Indonesia is a conference between the governments of Republic Indonesia and Dutch which was held in Den Haag, Netherlands from 23th of August until 2nd November 1949. The result of the Round Table Conference was that there’s a handover of sovereignty from the Colonial Government of Dutch for Republic Federal Indonesia, except West part of Papua. Indonesian people want that all area that was Dutch’s become Indonesian area but the Dutch want to make the Papua part of a new country because they have different ethnic than others. Because of this different opinions the agreement didn’t have any result. After that Republic Federal Indonesia was taking the debts from Netherlands, the Netherlands admit Republic Federal Indonesia as an independent Country. After that there’s a forming of RIS or the Republic Federal Indonesia which was on 27th of December 1949 Soekarno become the President with Hatta as the Prime Minister.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konferensi_Meja_Bundar
http://6rbtata.com/view/mpSu-tEowG0/Konferensi_Meja_Bundar.html

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The Struggle of Indonesia against Dutch (1945-1949)

The Struggle of Indonesia against Dutch (1945-1949) by Belinda 9D

Linggarjati Agreement
Linggarjati Agreement was an agreement between Indonesia and the Dutch in Linggarjati, in West Java. This was an agreement about Indonesia’s independence status. The agreement was sign in Merdeka Palace in Jakarta on 15 November 1946 and also approved by both countries in 25 March 1947.
In this discussion, Indonesia was represented by Sjahrir the third that was led by the Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir and the three members (Mohammad Roem, Susanto Tirtoprodji, and AK Gani). The Dutch was represented by a team called the Commission General and was led by Schermenhorn with the member (Max Van Poll, F de Boer, and HJ Van Mook). Lord Killearn from British acted as the mediator in this discussion (negotiation).
The result of this agreements consist of 17 chapters, that contain 4 main things. Those main things was: The Dutch must recognizes the territory of the Republic of Indonesia that was Java, Sumatra, and Madura. Second, the Dutch must leave the territory of the Republic of Indonesia on 1 January 1949 (that was the latest time the Dutch have to leave the territory of the Republic of Indonesia). Third, both Dutch and Indonesia have to agree to form the state of Indonesian Republic Union. And last, even though the territory of the Republic of Indonesian was form, the Dutch will be the head of the union.
But at the end, this discussion didn’t go well. On July 20, 1947, General H.J. Van Mook (the governor from Dutch) declared that the Dutch is no longer certain to the agreement, so on July 21, 1947, the Dutch begin to attack (Military Aggression 1). This event is a consequence of differences in interpretation between Dutch and Indonesia.

Renville agreement
Renville agreement was an agreement between Indonesia and Dutch that was sign on the 17 of January 1948, on the United States war ship deck, that was held in the port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta. The discussion began on December 8, 1947 and was brokered by the Three Kingdoms of Commission (the Committee of Good Offices for Indonesia), which consists of the United States, Australia and Belgium.
In this discussion, Indonesia was led by the Prime Minister Amir Syarifuddin Harahap while the Dutch was led by the Royal Dutch Colonial Army Col. R. Abdul Kadir Wijoyoatmojo.
The agreements that was made by the Dutch and Indonesia was: The Dutch recognition of Central Java, Yogyakarta and Sumatra as part of Indonesian territory. Second, the approval of demarcation line that separate Indonesian and Dutch territory. And third, the armed forces should be moved from West Java and East Java to Indonesia in Yogyakarta area.
The result of this agreement, there are view bad things happen to Indonesia. Those bad things was: The size of Indonesia’s territory is smaller and was in the middle of Dutch territory, violent reaction between the leaders of Indonesia where Amir Syarifuddin fall because he is considered for selling the country to the Dutch, The Indonesian economy was blockaded (was closed by an armed force) by the Dutch, Indonesia was force to pull back its military units of Indonesia from guerrilla areas and then migrated to the neighboring Indonesian territory.

Roem Royen Agreement
Roem Roy agreement is an agreement between Indonesia and Dutch that was started on 14 April 1949 and ended on 7 Mei 1949 in Des Indes Hotel, Batavia. The name was taken from both leaders of the delegation, Mohammad Roem and J.H. Van Roijen. The purpose of this meeting was to finish some of the problems about Indonesia’s Independence.
The agreement was: orders to the armed followers to stop the guerrilla war, cooperate in making back peace and maintaining the order and security, join in a Round Table Conference in The Hague to fasten the handover of sovereignty to the state.
On June 22, 1949, another meeting was held and a decision was made. The decision was: Full sovereignty will be given to Indonesia and unconditionally according to Renville agreement on 1948, Dutch and Indonesia will build a partnership with a voluntary basis and equal rights, and last, Dutch will give all the rights, powers, and responsibilities to Indonesia.

Round Table Conference
Round Table Conference in a meeting between Dutch and Indonesia that was held in Den Haag, in Dutch, from 23 of August to 2 November 1949. Dutch efforts to control Indonesia by violence was ended in failure because of the criticism from the international community. Indonesia and Dutch start a meeting to solve the problems they face by diplomacy, through Linggarjati agreement, Renville agreement, Roem Royen agreement and round table conference.
The result from Round Table Conference was: formation of a Dutch and Indonesian; with Monarch as head of the state; the takeover of the Dutch dept by the Republic of Indonesia states, the Kingdom of Dutch which gave sovereignty over Indonesia to the Republic of Indonesia states fully with no charge and could not be cut off, and because it recognizes the Republic of Indonesia states as an independent and sovereign state; Sovereignty will be handed as slow as possible on 30 December 1949.
On 27 December 1949, Soekarno became president and Hatta became the Prime Minister. They form the Cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia States. Indonesia’s union was form just like federation of sovereign republics that consists of 16 countries that have a common alliance with the kingdom of Dutch.

Bibliography:
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perjanjian_Roem_Royen
http://indonesiakemarin.blogspot.com/2009/05/perjanjian-roem-royen-7-mei-1949.html
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perjanjian_Renville
http://sejarahkita.comoj.com/jenny103.html
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konferensi_Meja_Bundar
http://6rbtata.com/view/mpSu-tEowG0/Konferensi_Meja_Bundar.html
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perundingan_Linggarjati

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